Description of Business, Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Nov. 30, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Description of Business, Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies||
NOTE 1 – DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Description of Business.
Cryo-Cell International, Inc. (“the Company” or “Cryo-Cell”) was incorporated in Delaware on September 11, 1989 and is headquartered in Oldsmar, Florida. The Company is organized in three reportable segments, cellular processing and cryogenic cellular storage, with a current focus on the collection and preservation of umbilical cord blood stem cells for family use, the manufacture of PrepaCyte CB units, the processing technology used to process umbilical cord blood stem cells and cellular processing and cryogenic storage of umbilical cord blood stem cells for public use. Revenues for the cellular processing and cryogenic cellular storage represent sales of the umbilical cord blood stem cells program to customers and income from licensees selling the umbilical cord blood stem cells program to customers outside the United States. Revenues for the manufacture of PrepaCyte CB units represent sales of the PrepaCyte CB units to customers. Revenue for the cryogenic storage of umbilical cord blood stem cells for public use, stored at Duke University (see below), is generated from the sale of the cord blood units to the National Marrow Donor Program (“NMDP”), which distributes the cord blood units to transplant centers located in the United States and around the world. The Company’s headquarters facility in Oldsmar, Florida handles all aspects of its U.S.-based business operations including the processing and storage of specimens, including specimens obtained from certain of its licensees’ customers. The specimens are stored in commercially available cryogenic storage equipment.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
The accompanying consolidated financial statements as of November 30, 2022 and November 30, 2021 and for the years then ended includes the accounts of the Company and all of its subsidiaries, which are inactive. All intercompany balances have been eliminated upon consolidation.
Concentration of Risks
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk are principally cash and cash equivalent accounts in financial institutions, which often exceed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) limit. The Company places its cash with high quality financial institutions and believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk. The Company may from time to time invest some of its cash funds in certificates of deposit and bond investments maintained by brokers who are insured under the Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC). The Company believes these are conservative investments with a low risk for any loss of principal. The Company regularly assesses its marketable security investments for impairment and adjusts its investment strategy as it deems appropriate.
The Company depends on one supplier for the source of its collection kits, a critical component of the umbilical cord blood stem cell collection process. However, the Company believes that alternative sources of supply are available.
The Company depends on three suppliers for the supply and manufacturing of the PrepaCyte CB units. However, the Company believes that alternative sources of supply and manufacturing are available.
The Company depends on one third party, the National Marrow Donor Program, to manage the public umbilical cord stem cells that are needed for transplant.
During fiscal 2022 and 2021, there were no concentration of risks.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”). ASC 606 applies to all contracts with customers, except for contracts that are within the scope of other standards, such as leases, insurance, collaboration arrangements and financial instruments. ASC 606 also impacts certain other areas, such as the accounting for costs to obtain or fulfill a contract. ASC 606 also requires disclosure of the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers.
Under ASC 606, revenue is recognized when, or as, obligations under the terms of a contract are satisfied, which occurs when control of the promised services are transferred to the customers. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for transferring services to a customer ("transaction price").
At contract inception, if the contract is determined to be within the scope of ASC 606, the Company evaluates its contracts with customers using the five-step model: (1) identify the contract with the customer; (2) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (3) determine the transaction price; (4) allocate the transaction price to separate performance obligations; and (5) recognize revenue when (or as) each performance obligation is satisfied. The Company evaluates its contracts for legal enforceability at contract inception and subsequently throughout the Company’s relationship with its customers. If legal enforceability with regards to the rights and obligations exist for both the Company and the customer, then the Company has an enforceable contract and revenue recognition is permitted subject to the satisfaction of the other criteria. If, at the outset of an arrangement, the Company determines that a contract with enforceable rights and obligations does not exist, revenues are deferred until all criteria for an enforceable contract are met. The Company only applies the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that collection of the consideration that the Company is entitled to in exchange for the goods or services being transferred to the customer, will occur.
Contract modifications exist when the modification either creates new or changes in the existing enforceable rights and obligations. The Company’s contracts are occasionally modified to account for changes in contract terms and conditions, which the Company refers to as an upgrade or downgrade. An upgrade occurs when a customer wants to pay for additional years of storage. A downgrade occurs when a customer originally entered into a long-term contract (such as twenty-one year or lifetime plan) but would like to change the term to a one-year contract. Upgrade modifications qualify for treatment as a separate contract as the additional services are distinct and the increase in contract price reflects the Company’s stand-alone selling price for the additional services and will be accounted for on a prospective basis. Downgrade modifications do not qualify for treatment as a separate contract as there is no increase in price over the original contract, thus failing the separate contract criteria. As such, the Company separately considers downgrade modifications to determine if these should be accounted for as a termination of the existing contract and creation of a new contract (prospective method) or as part of the existing contract (cumulative catch-up adjustment). ASC 606 requires that an entity account for the contract modification as if it were a termination of the existing contract, and the creation of a new contract, if the remaining goods or services are distinct from the goods or services transferred on or before the date of the contract modification. As the services after the modification were previously determined to be distinct, the Company concluded that downgrade modifications qualify under this method and will be accounted for on a prospective basis. Although contract modifications do occur, they are infrequent.
At contract inception, the Company assesses the goods and services promised in the contracts with customers and identifies a performance obligation for each promise to transfer to the customer a good or service (or bundle of goods or services) that is distinct. The Company then recognizes as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when (or as) the performance obligation is satisfied. To identify the performance obligations, the Company considers all of the goods or services promised in the contract regardless of whether they are explicitly stated or are implied by customary business practices. The Company determined that the following distinct goods and services represent separate performance obligations involving the sale of its umbilical cord blood product:
Collection and processing services
Public cord blood banking
License and royalties
Sale of PrepaCyte CB product
Collection, Processing and Storage Fees
Processing and storage fees include the Company providing umbilical cord blood and tissue cellular processing and cryogenic cellular storage for private use. Revenues recognized for the cellular processing and cryogenic cellular storage represent sales of the umbilical cord blood stem cells program to customers and income from licensees who are selling the umbilical cord blood stem cells program to customers outside the United States.
The Company recognizes revenue from processing fees at the point in time of the successful completion of processing and recognizes storage fees over time, which is ratably over the contractual storage period as well as other income from royalties paid by licensees related to long-term storage contracts which the Company has under license agreements. Contracted storage periods are typically , eighteen years, twenty-one years and lifetime. The life-time storage plan is based on a life expectancy of 81 years, which is the current estimate by the Center for Disease Control for United States women’s life expectancy and concluded that additional data analysis would result in an immaterial difference in revenue. Deferred revenue on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets includes the portion of the annual, the twenty-one-year and the life-time storage fees that are being recognized over the contractual storage period as well as royalties received from foreign licensees relating to long-term storage contracts for which the Company has future obligations under the license agreement. The Company classifies deferred revenue as current if the Company expects to recognize the related revenue over the next 12 months from the balance sheet date.
When determining the transaction price of a contract, an adjustment is made if payment from a customer occurs either significantly before or significantly after performance, resulting in a significant financing component. For all plans being annual, twenty-one years and lifetime, the storage fee is paid at the beginning of the storage period (prepaid plans). Alternatively, the Company offers payment plans (including a stated service fee) for customers to pay over time for a period of one to twenty-four plus months. The one-time plan includes the collection kit, processing and testing, return medical courier service and twenty-one years of pre-paid storage fees. The life-time plan includes the collection kit, processing and testing, return medical courier service and pre-paid storage fees for the life of the customer. The Company concluded that a significant financing component is not present within either the prepaid or overtime payment plans. The Company has determined that the twenty-one year and life-time prepayment options do not include a significant financing component as the payment terms were structured primarily for reasons other than the provision of financing and to maximize profitability.
The Company has determined that the majority of plans that are paid over time are paid in less than a year. When considered over a twenty-four-month payment plan, the difference between the cash selling price and the consideration paid is nominal. As such, the Company believes that its payment plans do not include significant financing components as they are not significant in the aggregate when considered in the context of all contracts entered into nor significant at the individual contract level.
The Company elected to apply the practical expedient where the Company does not need to assess whether a significant financing component exists if the period between when it performs its obligations under the contract and when the customer pays is one year or less.
As of November 30, 2022, the total aggregate transaction price allocated to the unsatisfied performance obligations was recorded as deferred revenue amounting to $45,586,386, which will be recognized ratably on a straight-line basis over the contractual period of which $9,586,327 will be recognized over the next twelve months.
In December 2005, the Company began providing its customers that enrolled after December 2005 a payment warranty under which the Company agrees to pay $50,000 to its client if the umbilical cord blood product retrieved is used for a stem cell transplant for the donor or an immediate family member and fails to engraft, subject to various restrictions. Effective February 1, 2012, the Company increased the $50,000 payment warranty to a $75,000 payment warranty to all of its new clients. Effective June 1, 2017, the Company increased the payment warranty to $100,000 to all new clients who choose the premium processing method, PrepaCyte CB. The product warranty is available to clients who enroll under this structure for as long as the specimen is stored with the Company. In the processing and storage agreements, the Company provides limited rights which are offered to customers automatically upon contract execution. The Company has determined that the payment warranty represents variable consideration payable to the customer.
Based on the Company’s historical experience to date, the Company has determined the payment warranty to be fully constrained under the most likely amount method. Consequently, the transaction price does not currently reflect any expectation of service level credits. At the end of each reporting period, the Company will update the
estimated transaction price related to the payment warranty including updating its assessment of whether an estimate of variable consideration is constrained to represent faithfully the circumstances present at the end of the reporting period and the changes in circumstances during the reporting period.
Allocation of transaction price
As the Company’s processing and storage agreements contain multiple performance obligations, ASC 606 requires an allocation of the transaction price based on the estimated relative standalone selling prices of the promised services underlying each performance obligation. The Company has selected an adjusted market assessment approach to estimate the stand-alone selling prices of the processing services and storage services and concluded that the published list price is the price that a customer in that market would be willing to pay for those goods or services. The Company also considered the fact that all customers are charged the list prices current at the time of their enrollment where the Company has separately stated list prices for processing and storage.
Costs to Obtain a Contract
The Company capitalizes commissions that are incremental in obtaining customer contracts and the costs incurred to fulfill a customer contract if those costs are not within the scope of another topic within the accounting literature and meet the specified criteria. These costs are deferred in other current or long-term assets and are expensed to selling, general and administrative expenses as the Company satisfies the performance obligations by transferring the service to the customer. These assets will be periodically assessed for impairment. As a practical expedient, the Company elected to recognize the incremental costs of obtaining its annual contracts as an expense when incurred, as the amortization period of the asset recognized would have been one year.
The Company has determined that payments under the Company’s refer-a-friend program (“RAF program”) are incremental costs of obtaining a contract as they provide an incentive for existing customers to refer new customers to the Company and is referred to as commission. The amount paid under the RAF program (either through issuance of credits to customers or check payments) which exceeds the typical commission payment to a sales representative is recorded as a reduction to revenue under ASC 606. During the twelve months ended November 30, 2022 and November 30, 2021, the Company recorded $50,977 and $49,378, respectively, in commission payments to customers under the RAF program as a reduction to revenue. For the twelve months ended November 30, 2022 and November 30, 2021, the Company capitalized additional contract acquisition costs of $109,673 and $95,168, respectively, net of amortization expense.
Public banking revenue
The Company sells cord blood units to the National Marrow Donor program ("NMDP") which distributes the cord blood units to transplant centers located in the United States and around the world. Control is transferred at the point in time when the shipment has occurred, at which time, the Company records revenue.
c) Licensee and royalty income
Licensee and royalty income consist of royalty income earned on the processing and storage of cord blood stem cell specimens by an affiliate where the Company has a License and Royalty Agreement. The Company records revenue from processing and storage of specimens and pursuant to agreements with licensees. The Company records the royalty revenue in same period that the related processing and storage is being completed by the affiliate.
The Company records revenue from the sale of the PrepaCyte CB product line upon shipment of the product to the Company’s customers.
Shipping and handling
The Company elected to apply the practical expedient to account for shipping and handling activities performed after the control of a good has been transferred to the customer as a fulfillment cost. Shipping and handling costs that the Company incurs are therefore expensed and included in cost of sales.
Disaggregation of Revenue
The revenue as reflected in the statements of income is disaggregated by products and services.
The following table provides information about assets and liabilities from contracts with customers:
The Company, in general, requires the customer to pay for processing and storage services at the time of processing. Contract assets include deferred contract acquisition costs, which will be amortized along with the associated revenue. Contract liabilities include payments received in advance of performance under the contract and are realized with the associated revenue recognized under the contract. Accounts receivable consists of amounts due from clients that have enrolled and processed in the umbilical cord blood stem cell processing and storage programs related to renewals of annual plans and amounts due from license affiliates, and sublicensee territories. The Company did not have asset impairment charges related to contract assets in the twelve months ended November 30, 2022 and November 30, 2021.
The following table presents changes in the Company’s contract assets and liabilities during the twelve months ended November 30, 2022:
The following table presents changes in the Company’s contract assets and liabilities during the twelve months ended November 30, 2021:
Revenue Sharing Agreements
The Company entered into Revenue Sharing Agreements (“RSAs”) prior to 2002 with various third and related parties. The Company’s RSAs provide that in exchange for a non-refundable up-front payment, the Company would share for the duration of the contract a percentage of its future storage revenue collected from the annual storage fees charged related to a certain number of specimens that originated from specific geographical areas. The RSAs have no definitive term or termination provisions. The sharing applies to the storage fees collected for all specified specimens in the area up to the number covered in the contract. When the number of specimens is filled, any additional specimens stored in that area are not subject to revenue sharing. As there are empty spaces resulting from attrition, the Company agrees to fill them as soon as possible. The Company has reflected these up-front payments as long-term liabilities on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. The Company does not intend to enter into additional RSAs.
In the future, the Company could reverse the liability relating to the RSAs over an appropriate period of time, based on the Company’s expectations of the total amount of payments it expects to pay to the other party under the particular RSA. However, the RSAs do not establish a finite term or time frame over which to estimate the total payments and the Company had not previously estimated and has concluded that it is not currently practicable to estimate the projected cash flows under the RSAs. At present, the Company intends to defer the reversal of the liability, until such time as these amounts can be determined. During the periods when the Company defers the reversal of the liability, the quarterly payments made during these periods will be treated as interest expense, which will be recognized as the payments become due. In future periods, if a portion of the liability can be de-recognized based on the effective interest method, the payments will be allocated between interest and amortization of the liability.
As cash is paid out to the other party during any period, the liability would be de-recognized based on the portion of the total anticipated payouts made during the period, using the effective interest method. That is, a portion of the payment would be recorded as interest expense, and the remainder would be treated as repayment of principal, which would reduce the liability.
License and Royalty Agreements
The Company has entered into licensing agreements with certain investors in various international markets in an attempt to capitalize on the Company’s technology. The investors typically pay a licensing fee to receive Company marketing programs, technology and know-how in a selected area. The investor may be given a right to sell sub-license agreements as well. As part of the accounting for the up-front license fee paid, or payable, to the Company, revenue from the up-front license fee is recognized based on such factors as when the payment is due, collectability and when all material services or conditions relating to the sale have been substantially performed by the Company based on the terms of the agreement. The Company has twelve active licensing agreements. The following areas each have one license agreement: El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama, Honduras and Pakistan. The following areas each have two license agreements: India, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.
In addition to the license fee, the Company earns processing and storage fees on subsequent processing and storage revenues received by the licensee in the licensed territory and a fee on any sub-license agreements that are sold by the licensee where applicable. These fees are included in processing and storage fees revenue on the consolidated statements of income. The Company periodically reviews license and royalty receivables for collectability and, if necessary, will record an expense for an allowance for uncollectible accounts.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of highly liquid investments with a maturity date of three months or less at the time of purchase.
Accounts receivable consist of uncollateralized amounts due from clients that have enrolled and processed in the umbilical cord blood stem cell processing and storage programs and amounts due from license affiliates, and sublicensee territories. Accounts receivable are due within 30 days and are stated at amounts net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. Accounts outstanding longer than the contractual payment terms are considered past due. The Company determines its allowance by considering the length of time accounts receivable are past due, the Company’s previous loss history, and the client’s current ability to pay its obligations. Therefore, if the financial condition of the Company’s clients were to deteriorate beyond the estimates, the Company may have to increase the allowance for doubtful accounts which could have a negative impact on earnings. The Company writes-off accounts receivable when they become uncollectible, and payments subsequently received on such receivables are credited to the allowance for doubtful accounts.
As part of the Cord:Use Purchase Agreement, the Company has an agreement with Duke University (“Duke”) expiring on January 31, 2025 for Duke to receive, process, and store cord blood units for the Public Cord Blood Bank (“Duke Services”). As of November 30, 2022, the Company had approximately 6,000 cord blood units in inventory. These units are valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Costs include the cost of collecting, transporting, processing and storing the unit. Costs charged by Duke for their Duke Services are based on a monthly fixed fee for processing and storing 36 blood units per year. The Company computes the cost per unit for these Duke Services and capitalizes the unit cost on all blood units shipped and stored in a year at Duke. If the Company ships and stores less than 36 blood units with Duke in a one-year period, a portion of these fixed costs are expensed and included in facility operating costs. Certain costs of collection incurred, such as the cost of collection staff and transportation costs incurred to ship Public Bank units from hospitals to the stem cell laboratory are allocated to banked units based on an average cost method. The change in the number of expected units to be sold could have a significant impact on the estimated net realizable value of banked units which could have a material effect on the value of the inventory. Costs incurred related to cord blood units that cannot be sold are expensed in the period incurred and are included in facility operating costs in the accompanying statements of operations. The Company records a reserve against inventory for units which have been processed and frozen but may not ultimately become distributable (see Note 2). Due to changes in sales trends and estimated recoverability of cost capitalized into inventory, an impairment charge of $0 and $1,164,499 was recognized during the twelve months ended November 30, 2022 and November 30, 2021, respectively, to reduce inventory from cost to net realizable value and is included in the accompanying consolidated statements of income.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation is provided primarily by the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the related assets. Estimated useful lives of property and equipment are as follows:
Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the respective life of the lease or the estimated useful lives of the improvements. Upon the sale or retirement of depreciable assets, the cost and related accumulated depreciation is removed from the accounts and the resulting profit or loss is reflected in earnings. Expenditures for maintenance, repairs and minor betterments are expensed as incurred.
The Company capitalizes external direct costs of materials and services consumed in developing or obtaining internal-use computer software. Capitalized internal-use software costs, which are included in property and equipment, are depreciated over the estimated useful lives of the software.
As part of the Cord:Use Purchase Agreement, the Company acquired the shares of common stock of Tianhe Stem Cell Biotechnologies, Inc. As there is no readily determinable fair value for this stock, the Company periodically reviews the value for impairment.
The Company evaluates the realizability of its long-lived assets, which requires impairment losses to be recorded on long-lived assets used in operations when indicators of impairment, such as reductions in demand or when significant economic slowdowns are present. Reviews are performed to determine whether the carrying value of an asset is impaired, based on comparisons to undiscounted expected future cash flows. If this comparison indicates that there is impairment and carrying value is in excess of fair value, the impaired asset is written down to fair value, which is typically calculated using: (i) quoted market prices or (ii) discounted expected future cash flows utilizing a discount rate. The Company did not note any indicators of impairment as of November 30, 2022 and November 30, 2021, respectively.
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price of the assets acquired from Cord:Use over the estimated fair value of the net tangible, intangible and identifiable assets acquired. The annual assessment of the reporting unit is performed as of September 1st, and an assessment is performed at other times if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the asset below its carrying value. The Company first performs a qualitative assessment to test goodwill for impairment and concludes if it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value. If the qualitative assessment concludes that it is not more likely than not that the fair value is less than the carrying value, the two-step goodwill impairment test is not required. If the qualitative assessment concludes that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying value, then the two-step goodwill impairment test is required. Step one of the impairment assessment compares the fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying value and if the fair value exceeds its carrying value, goodwill is not impaired. If the carrying value exceeds the fair value, the implied fair value of goodwill is compared to the carrying value of goodwill. If the implied fair value exceeds the carrying value then goodwill is not impaired; otherwise, an impairment loss would be recorded by the amount the carrying value exceeds the implied fair value.
At the inception of a lease arrangement, the Company determines whether the arrangement is or contains a lease based on the unique facts and circumstances present in the arrangement. Leases with a term greater than one year are recognized on the balance sheet as a right-of-use (ROU) assets and as short-term and long-term lease liabilities, as applicable. The Company does not have any financing leases.
Operating lease liabilities and their corresponding right-of-use assets are initially recorded based on the present value of lease payments over the expected remaining lease term. The interest rate implicit in lease contracts
is typically not readily determinable. As a result, the Company utilizes its incremental borrowing rate to discount lease payments, which reflects the fixed rate at which the Company believes it could borrow on a collateralized basis the amount of the lease payments in the same currency, for a similar term, in a similar economic environment.
The Company has elected not to recognize leases with an original term of one year or less on the balance sheet. The Company typically only includes an initial lease term in its assessment of a lease arrangement. Options to renew a lease are not included in the Company’s assessment unless there is reasonable certainty that the Company will renew.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences attributable to differences between financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to be recovered or settled. The Company records a valuation allowance when it is “more likely than not” that all of the future income tax benefits will not be realized. When the Company changes its determination as to the amount of deferred income tax assets that can be realized, the valuation allowance is adjusted with a corresponding impact to income tax expense in the period in which such determination is made. The ultimate realization of the Company’s deferred income tax assets depends upon generating sufficient taxable income prior to the expiration of the tax attributes. In assessing the need for a valuation allowance, the Company projects future levels of taxable income. This assessment requires significant judgment. The Company examines the evidence related to the recent history of losses, the economic conditions in which the Company operates and forecasts and projections to make that determination.
The Company recognizes the financial statement benefit of a tax position only after determining that the relevant tax authority would more likely than not sustain the position following an audit. For tax positions meeting the more-likely-than-not threshold, the amount recognized in the financial statements is the largest benefit that has a greater than 50 percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with the relevant tax authority. Increases or decreases to the unrecognized tax benefits could result from management’s belief that a position can or cannot be sustained upon examination based on subsequent information or potential lapse of the applicable statute of limitation for certain tax positions.
The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in income tax expense. For fiscal 2022 and 2021 the Company had no uncertain tax provisions and therefore no material provisions for interest or penalties related to uncertain tax positions.
Research, Development and Related Engineering Costs
Research, development and related engineering costs are expensed as incurred.
Cost of Sales
Cost of sales represents the associated expenses resulting from the processing, testing, storage and delivery of the umbilical cord blood. Cost of sales related to PrepaCyte CB represents the associated expenses resulting from the manufacturing of the PrepaCyte CB units. Cost of sales related to the Public Cord Blood Bank represents the associated expenses resulting from the collection, shipping, processing and storage of the cord blood stem cell units.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and are included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of ncome. Total advertising expense for the fiscal years ended November 30, 2022 and 2021 was approximately $755,921 and $841,514, respectively.
Rent is expensed on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease and is included in cost of sales and selling, general and administrative expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of income. All leases include provisions for escalations and related costs.
Legal fees are expensed as incurred and are included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of income.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Management uses a fair value hierarchy, which gives the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets. The fair value of financial instruments is estimated based on market trading information, where available. Absent published market values for an instrument or other assets, management uses observable market data to arrive at its estimates of fair value. Management believes that the carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments. The Company believes that the fair value of its Revenue Sharing Agreements (“RSA”) liability recorded on the balance sheet is between the recorded book value and up to the Company’s previous settlement experience, due to the various terms and conditions associated with each RSA.
The Company uses an accounting standard that defines fair value as an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability. As a basis for considering such assumptions, the standard establishes a three-level fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value. The three levels of inputs used to measure fair value are as follows:
Level 1 Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 Observable inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1, such as quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar assets and liabilities in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data.
Level 3 Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities. This includes certain pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies and similar techniques that use significant unobservable inputs.
The following table summarizes the financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of November 30, 2022 and November 30, 2021, respectively, segregated among the appropriate levels within the fair value hierarchy:
The following is a description of the valuation techniques used for these items, as well as the general classification of such items pursuant to the fair value hierarchy:
Marketable securities - Equity securities with readily determinable fair values are measured at fair value with the changes in fair value recognized through net income. There was approximately ($39,000) and ($13,000) in losses, respectively, recorded in other income and expense on the accompanying consolidated statements of income for the twelve months ended November 30, 2022 and 2021.
Contingent consideration - The contingent consideration is the earnout that Cord:Use is entitled to from the Company’s sale of the public cord blood inventory from and after closing. The estimated fair value of the contingent earnout was determined using a Monte Carlo analysis examining the frequency and mean value of the resulting earnout payments. The resulting value captures the risk associated with the form of the payout structure. The risk-neutral method is applied, resulting in a value that captures the risk associated with the form of the payout structure and the projection risk. The carrying amount of the liability may fluctuate significantly and actual amounts paid may be materially different from the estimated value of the liability.
Product Warranty and Cryo-Cell CaresTM Program
In December 2005, the Company began providing its customers that enrolled after December 2005 a payment warranty under which the Company agrees to pay $50,000 to its client if the umbilical cord blood product retrieved is used for a stem cell transplant for the donor or an immediate family member and fails to engraft, subject to various restrictions. Effective February 1, 2012, the Company increased the $50,000 payment warranty to a $75,000 payment warranty to all of its new clients. Effective June 1, 2017, the Company increased the payment warranty to $100,000 to all new clients who choose the premium processing method, PrepaCyte CB. The product warranty is available to clients who enroll under this structure for as long as the specimen is stored with the Company. The Company has not experienced any claims under the warranty program, nor has it incurred costs related to these warranties.
As discussed above, the Company has determined that the payment warranty represents variable consideration payable to the customer. In accordance with ASC 606, the Company has concluded the payment warranty be fully constrained under the most likely amount method; therefore, the transaction price does not reflect any expectation of service level credits at November 30, 2022 and November 30, 2021. At the end of each reporting period, the Company shall update the estimated transaction price related to the payment guarantee including updating its assessment of whether an estimate of variable consideration is constrained to represent faithfully the circumstances present at the end of the reporting period and the changes in circumstances during the reporting period.
Income per Common Share
Basic income per common share was computed by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the fiscal year ended or as of the date indicated. Diluted income per common share includes the effect of all dilutive stock options. The composition of basic and diluted net income per share is as follows:
For the year ended November 30, 2022, the Company excluded the effect of 635,301 outstanding stock options from the computation of diluted earnings per share, as the effect of potentially dilutive shares from the outstanding stock options would be anti-dilutive.
For the year ended November 30, 2021 the Company excluded the effect of 15,900 outstanding stock options from the computation of diluted earnings per share, as the effect of potentially dilutive shares from the outstanding stock options would be anti-dilutive.
As of November 30, 2022, the Company has three stock-based employee compensation plans, which are described in Note 10 to the consolidated financial statements: the 2006 Plan, 2012 Plan and the 2022 Plan. The 2006 and 2012 Plans will remain in effect as long as any awards under the Plans are outstanding; however, no further awards may be granted under either plan. The 2022 Plan became effective April 8, 2022 as approved by the Board of Directors and approved by the stockholders at the 2022 Annual Meeting. The Company recognized approximately $461,000 and $302,000 for the fiscal years ended November 30, 2022 and November 30, 2021, respectively, of stock compensation expense.
The Company recognizes stock-based compensation based on the fair value of the related awards. Under the fair value recognition guidance of stock-based compensation accounting rules, stock-based compensation expense is estimated at the grant date based on the fair value of the award and is recognized as expense over the requisite service period of the award. The fair value of service-based vesting condition and performance-based vesting condition stock option awards is determined using the Black-Scholes valuation model. For stock option awards with only service-based vesting conditions and graded vesting features, the Company recognizes stock compensation expense based on the graded-vesting method. To value awards with market-based vesting conditions the Company uses a binomial valuation model. The Company recognizes compensation cost for awards with market-based vesting conditions on a graded-vesting basis over the derived service period calculated by the binomial valuation model. The use of these valuation models involves assumptions that are judgmental and highly sensitive in the determination of compensation expense and include the expected life of the option, stock price volatility, risk-free interest rate, dividend yield, exercise price, and forfeiture rate. Forfeitures are estimated at the time of valuation and reduce expense ratably over the vesting period.
The estimation of stock awards that will ultimately vest requires judgment and to the extent that actual results or updated estimates differ from current estimates, such amounts will be recorded as a cumulative adjustment in the period they become known. The Company considered many factors when estimating forfeitures, including the recipient groups and historical experience. Actual results and future changes in estimates may differ substantially from current estimates.
The Company issues performance-based equity awards which vest upon the achievement of certain financial performance goals, including revenue and income targets. Determining the appropriate amount to expense based on the anticipated achievement of the stated goals requires judgment, including forecasting future financial results. The estimate of the timing of the expense recognition is revised periodically based on the probability of achieving the required performance targets and adjustments are made as appropriate. The cumulative impact of any revision is reflected in the period of the change. If the financial performance goals are not met, the award does not vest, so no compensation cost is recognized and any previously stock-recognized stock-based compensation expense is reversed.
The Company issues equity awards with market-based vesting conditions which vest upon the achievement of certain stock price targets. If the awards are forfeited prior to the completion of the derived service period, any recognized compensation is reversed. If the awards are forfeited after the completion of the derived service period, the compensation cost is not reversed, even if the awards never vest.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. ASU 2016-13 provides guidance for estimating credit losses on certain types of financial instruments, including trade receivables, by introducing an approach based on expected losses. The expected loss approach will require entities to incorporate considerations of historical information, current information and reasonable and supportable forecasts. ASU 2016-13 also amends the accounting for credit losses on available-for-sale debt securities and purchased financial assets with credit deterioration. The guidance requires a modified retrospective transition method and early adoption is permitted. In November 2019, FASB issued ASU No. 2019-10, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses, Derivatives and Hedging, and Leases (“ASU 2019-10”), which defers the adoption of ASU 2016-13 for smaller reporting companies until periods beginning after December 15, 2022. The Company will continue to evaluate the impact of ASU 2016-13 on its consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef